## How Long to Attain Unanimity?

(A new question of the week) Suppose we have a question that can be answered with Yes, No, or Maybe, and that whenever two people with different opinions meet, their discussion convinces each of them that neither can be right, so they both change to the other opinion. Given initial numbers of people with each …

## Logs of Negative or Complex Numbers

Last time we considered negative bases for logarithms; in that discussion it was mentioned that complex numbers can change everything. This will allow us to do things like finding logs of negative numbers; but it will also make things, well, more complex! Let’s take a look.

## Why Can’t a Logarithm Have a Negative Base?

We’ve looked at the basics of logsĀ and how they work; now we have some questions testing the limits of the definition. We’ll focus on the inverse idea of exponential functions with a negative base, looking at this from several perspectives.

## Why Do Logarithms Work That Way?

Last time, we introduced logarithms by way of their history. Here, we’ll look at their properties.

## Where Do Logarithms Come From?

Having answered many questions recently about logarithms, I realized we haven’t yet covered the basics of that topic. Here we’ll introduce the concept by way of its history, and subsequently we’ll explore how they work.

## Casting Out Nines: Why It Works

Last week we looked at how to “cast out nines” to check arithmetic, and touched only briefly on its relationship with modular arithmetic and remainders. Here we’ll look at several explanations of why it works, aimed at different levels of students, with varying levels of success..

## Casting Out Nines: What and How

This old technique for checking arithmetic is both easy and hard to describe: easy to explain in advanced terms, but hard to explain in elementary terms. We’ll try to do it all here, but a fuller explanation of the “why” will come next week.

## Law of Sines vs Law of Cosines: Which is Better?

Last month, four students from the same class wrote to us with the same question: Which is more accurate, the Law of Sines or the Law of Cosines? Those led to a couple deeper discussions, as we explored the context.

## Permutation vs Combination: Clarifying Our Terms

A couple recent questions dealt with details in the way permutations and combinations are explained. What do we mean when we say that “order matters” for a permutation, and that there is “no repetition” or that the things being chosen are “different”? Teachers need to know how students hear such words.

## Looks Like a Frustum, But …

Last time we looked at how to find the volume of a frustum of a pyramid or cone. But sometimes what looks at first like a rectangular frustum actually isn’t. This case turns out to have a more general formula almost as nice as what we have for an actual frustum. We’ll discover that the …