Why

Shifting and Stretching Graphs

A common topic in algebra courses is how to transform functions and their graphs. In the series starting today, we’ll start with the basics of how and why a graph is moved or stretched, then combine transformations and look at various special cases and other transformations, ending up with graphing trigonometric functions. Translating (shifting) a …

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Zero Divided By Zero: Undefined and Indeterminate

Back in January, I discussed the issue of division by zero. There is a special case of that that causes even more trouble, in every field from arithmetic to calculus: zero divided by zero. I’ll look at several typical questions that we answered at different levels. Conflicting rules for division? Let’s start here: Zero Laws …

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What’s the Point of Limits?

(An archive question of the week) Many calculus courses start out with a chapter on limits; or they may be introduced in a “precalculus” course. But too often the concept is not sufficiently motivated. What good are limits? Why did they have to be invented? Are they as simple as they seem? Why is an epsilon-delta …

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Dividing Fractions: How and Why

Fractions have always given students trouble, and we have had many questions about working with them. Even looking only at division of fractions, I have had to restrict my attention to a few sample answers. These show the reasons for the standard method, presented in a variety of ways, together with some alternative methods.

Integration by Substitution

(An archive question of the week) Last time, we looked at a method of integration, namely partial fractions, so it seems appropriate to find something about another method of integration (this one more specifically part of calculus rather than algebra). We will look at a question about integration by substitution; as a bonus, I will …

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